Floral Biology Of Rice (2023)

1. Flower Anatomy - PLB Lab Websites

  • The rice "flower" is called a SPIKELET. The floral organs are what's inside the lemma and the palea. A spikelet consists of all parts in the above figure.

  •       Carpel        

2. Flower development in rice | Journal of Experimental Botany

  • Sep 13, 2011 · Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most fascinating model species in which to investigate flower development because it has a unique structure ...

  • Abstract. The flower of rice diverged from those of model eudicot species such as Arabidopsis, Antirrhinum, or Petunia, and is thus of great interest in develop

Flower development in rice | Journal of Experimental Botany

3. [PDF] Biology of RICE.pmd - GEAC

  • Precise knowledge of floral biology, which includes structural and functional aspects of rice flower is essential for breeders to plan and execute breeding ...

4. Genetic and molecular pathways controlling rice inflorescence ...

  • Sep 13, 2022 · FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER1 (FON1) and FON2 (also known as FON4) in rice are the homologs of CLV1 and CLV3, respectively.

  • Rice inflorescence is one of the major organs in determining grain yield. The genetic and molecular regulation on rice inflorescence architecture has been well investigated over the past years. In the present review, we described genes regulating rice inflorescence architecture based on their roles in meristem activity maintenance, meristem identity conversion and branch elongation. We also introduced the emerging regulatory pathways of phytohormones involved in rice inflorescence development. These studies show the intricacies and challenges of manipulating inflorescence architecture for rice yield improvement.

Genetic and molecular pathways controlling rice inflorescence ...

5. Botany of Paddy - TNAU Agritech Portal

  • The spikelet in rice is single flowered enclosed by the lemma and palea. There are six stamens, in two whorls of three each, the filaments being very slender ...

  • Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world and it is the staple food for over 2.7 billion people. In India, area under rice is 44.6 m ha with total output of 80 million tonnes (paddy) with an average productivity of 1855 kg/ha. It is grown in almost all the states. West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Tamilnadu, Kerala, Punjab, Maharashtra and Karnataka are major rice growing states and contribute to total 92% of area and production.

6. 2.44: Rice - Biology LibreTexts

  • Oct 12, 2021 · Rice has a typical grass structure with a series of leaves that form a false stem through which emerges the main stem when the plant flowers and ...

  • \( \newcommand{\vecs}[1]{\overset { \scriptstyle \rightharpoonup} {\mathbf{#1}} } \) \( \newcommand{\vecd}[1]{\overset{-\!-\!\rightharpoonup}{\vphantom{a}\smash {#1}}} \)\(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \(\newcommand{\id}{\mathrm{id}}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\) \( \newcommand{\kernel}{\mathrm{null}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\range}{\mathrm{range}\,}\) \( \newcommand{\RealPart}{\mathrm{Re}}\) \( \newcommand{\ImaginaryPart}{\mathrm{Im}}\) \( \newcommand{\Argument}{\mathrm{Arg}}\) \( \newcommand{\norm}[1]{\| #1 \|}\) \( \newcommand{\inner}[2]{\langle #1, #2 \rangle}\) \( \newcommand{\Span}{\mathrm{span}}\)\(\newcommand{\AA}{\unicode[.8,0]{x212B}}\)

2.44: Rice - Biology LibreTexts

7. Advances on the Study of Diurnal Flower-Opening Times of Rice - MDPI

  • In the past, hybrid rice mainly utilized hybrid vigour between indica rice varieties, but it has reached a bottleneck and further yield improvements are ...

  • The principal goal of rice (Oryza sativa L.) breeding is to increase the yield. In the past, hybrid rice was mainly indica intra-subspecies hybrids, but its yield has been difficult to improve. The hybridization between the indica and japonica subspecies has stronger heterosis; the utilization of inter-subspecies heterosis is important for long-term improvement of rice yields. However, the different diurnal flower-opening times (DFOTs) between the indica and japonica subspecies seriously reduce the efficiency of cross-pollination and yield and increase the cost of indica–japonica hybrid rice seeds, which has become one of the main constraints for the development of indica–japonica hybrid rice breeding. The DFOT of plants is adapted to their growing environment and is also closely related to species stability and evolution. Herein, we review the structure and physiological basis of rice flower opening, the factors that affect DFOT, and the progress of cloning and characterization of DFOT genes in rice. We also analyze the problems in the study of DFOT and provide corresponding suggestions.

Advances on the Study of Diurnal Flower-Opening Times of Rice - MDPI

8. [PDF] 06. Botanical description and floral biology - eagri.org

  • Inflorescence is panicle or spike. Stamens usually three (in rice - six). Fruit is a caryopsis. Rice – Oryza sativa L. (2n = 24).

9. floral diagram of rice | crop improvement | GPB311 - YouTube

  • Duration: 13:08Posted: Nov 10, 2020

  • #floral_biology_of_rice

floral diagram of rice | crop improvement | GPB311 - YouTube

10. Combining ability, floral biology, and seed producibility of promising ...

  • Oct 7, 2021 · Hybrid rice could yield 15–20% higher than the best conventional inbred rice varieties under similar conditions (Virmani 1996).In China, about ...

  • A combining ability analysis is a useful tool of plant breeders in screening and identifying promising parental lines with high potential for developing competitive rice hybrids. Also, one important factor that strongly determines the suitability of commercial utilization of hybrid rice parental lines is their extent of seed producibility. In this study, the combining ability, floral biology and seed producibility of cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) lines were investigated to identify good combiners with good seed production potential. The Line × Tester analysis was used to determine the general combining abilities (GCA) of hybrid rice parental lines, and Specific Combining Abilities (SCA) of the different hybrid combinations. A correlation analysis was also done to determine floral traits that influence the outcrossing rate of the CMS lines. There were 4 CMS lines, 6 restorer lines, 24 hybrid combinations and 1 check variety in a randomized complete block Design (RCBD) with 3 replicates. Results indicated that CMS lines IR79128B and IR102758B were good combiners and the most promising restorer lines were D2031-7-1-2R, Hanareumbyeo 2, and XTR036-54-10R. Based on specific combining ability test, the most promising combination was entry 10 (IR58025A/D2013-7-1-2R). It has the highest yield of 7496 kg ha−1, a high positive SCA score of 570.54, and highest standard heterosis of 12.9%. Based on floral traits, IR79128B was the most promising with a high positive GCA score of 186.93, panicle exertion rate of 74.8%, and a high outcrossing rate of 51%. There was a significant positive association between outcrossing rate, duration of floral opening, panicle exertion rate, and general combining ability. The floral traits found to be significantly associated with outcrossing rate are useful selection criteria not only for identifying economically usable CMS lines but also for developing new and promising parental lines and hybrids. These CMS lines do not only give heterotic combinations but are also commercially producible, the two most important factors to the success of any hybrid rice breeding program.

Combining ability, floral biology, and seed producibility of promising ...

11. Automated characterization of flowering dynamics in rice using ...

  • Feb 13, 2015 · Flowering (spikelet anthesis) is one of the most important phenotypic characteristics of paddy rice, and researchers expend efforts to ...

  • Flowering (spikelet anthesis) is one of the most important phenotypic characteristics of paddy rice, and researchers expend efforts to observe flowering timing. Observing flowering is very time-consuming and labor-intensive, because it is still visually performed by humans. An image-based method that automatically detects the flowering of paddy rice is highly desirable. However, varying illumination, diversity of appearance of the flowering parts of the panicles, shape deformation, partial occlusion, and complex background make the development of such a method challenging. We developed a method for detecting flowering panicles of rice in RGB images using scale-invariant feature transform descriptors, bag of visual words, and a machine learning method, support vector machine. Applying the method to time-series images, we estimated the number of flowering panicles and the diurnal peak of flowering on each day. The method accurately detected the flowering parts of panicles during the flowering period and quantified the daily and diurnal flowering pattern. A powerful method for automatically detecting flowering panicles of paddy rice in time-series RGB images taken under natural field conditions is described. The method can automatically count flowering panicles. In application to time-series images, the proposed method can well quantify the daily amount and the diurnal changes of flowering during the flowering period and identify daily peaks of flowering.

Automated characterization of flowering dynamics in rice using ...

12. Biology of Oryza sativa L. (Rice) - ICAR Biosafety Portal

  • Nov 13, 2015 · Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a plant belonging to the family of grasses, Gramineae (Poaceae). It is one of the three major food crops of the ...

  • Posted onNovember 13, 2015April 11, 2016AuthorSonia Kaushik

13. Untitled

  • Rice milk also contains more carbohydrates than breast milk or formula. The floral-dip method for rice (Oryza sativa) transformation Flower development in rice ...

14. The Rice Plant - R I C E H U B

  • Reproductive (flower) organs · The rice envelope made of glumes (large portions above the pedicels that link the spikelets to the secondary ramifications) and ...

  • Rice belongs to the family of Gramineae and the genera Oryzae. Oryzae contains about 20 different species, of which only two are cultivated: Oryza sativa L. (‘Asian rice’) and Oryza glaberrima Steud. (‘African rice’). 

15. Identification and characterization of a novel gene controlling floral organ ...

  • In this study, a floral organ number mutant was generated by the ethyl methanesulfonate treatment of the Korean japonica rice cultivar Ilpum. In the floral ...

  • Floral organ number is crucial for successful seed setting and mature grain development. Although some genes and signaling pathways controlling floral organ number have been studied, the underlying mechanism is complicated and requires further investigation. In this study, a floral organ number mutant was generated by the ethyl methanesulfonate treatment of the Korean japonica rice cultivar Ilpum. In the floral organ number mutant, 37% of the spikelets showed an increase in the number of floral organs, especially stamens and pistils. Histological analysis revealed that the number of ovaries was determined by the number of stigmas; spikelets with two or three stigmas contained only one ovary, whereas spikelets with four stigmas possessed two ovaries. The floral organ number mutant showed pleiotropic phenotypes including multiple grains, early flowering, short plant height, and reduced tiller number compared with the wild-type. Genetic and MutMap analyses revealed that floral organ number is controlled by a single recessive gene located between the 8.0 and 20.0 Mb region on chromosome 8. Calculation of SNP-index confirmed Os08g0299000 as the candidate gene regulating floral organ number, which was designated as FLORAL ORGAN NUMBER7 (FON7). A single nucleotide polymorphism (G to A) was discovered at the intron splicing donor site of FON7, which caused the skipping of the entire sixth exon in the mutant, resulting in the deletion of 144 bp. Furthermore, the T-DNA-tagged line displayed the same floral organ number phenotype as the fon7 mutant. These results provide valuable insight into the mechanism of floral organ differentiation and formation in rice.

Identification and characterization of a novel gene controlling floral organ ...


Floral Biology Of Rice? ›

Abstract. In rice, the flower consisting of lodicules, stamens and carpels is enclosed by the lemma and palea to form the floret, which together with sterile lemmas and rudimentary glumes constitutes the spikelet. Thus, the flower and the inflorescence units of rice are distinct from those of eudicots.

What is the flower formation of rice? ›

Rice plants pass several different anatomical stages in the flowering process from the dif- ferentiation of primary rachis-branch pri- mordia to the late stages of reproductive division. Arrangement from the early to the late stages chronologically will show a quanti- tative presentation of floral development.

What are the flower characteristics of rice? ›

The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m (3–6 ft) tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm (20–40 in) long and 2–2.5 cm (3⁄4–1 in) broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm (12–20 in) long.

What is the floral inflorescence of rice? ›

The rice inflorescence is also called “panicle” that primarily contains a rachis, branches and spikelets.

Do rice produce flowers? ›

Perennial rice—like many other perennial plants—can spread by horizontal stems below or just above the surface of the soil but they also reproduce sexually by producing flowers, pollen and seeds. As with any other grain crop, it is the seeds that are harvested and eaten by humans.

What are the flowering time genes in rice? ›

Expression analysis of flowering time genes in rice plants grown in different photoperiods indicated that floral promoters Ehd1 and Hd3a are transcriptionally activated at daylight <13.5 h whilst the floral repressor Ghd7 at daylight >13.5 h (Itoh et al., 2010).

What is the pollination of rice flower? ›

Rice pollination occurs when pollen grains fall by gravity from the anther onto the stigma and has been thought to be assured under suitable conditions. However, the position of the stigma relative to the anther pores may affect pollination.

Is rice a flower stigma? ›

A rice flower consists of a lemma and palea, two lodicules, six stamens, and one pistil with two stigmas. Several genes involved in spikelet development have been characterized. For example, OsMADS34, a SEPALLATA-LIKE gene, controls rice inflorescence and spikelet development (Gao et al.

What is the panicle and spikelet of rice? ›

Rice panicle comprises the main axis, a branch from the branch meristem, and a spikelet from the spikelet meristem. The spikelet meristem forms the rudimentary glumes, sterile lemmas and certain number of florets. The panicle of Brachypodium distachyon comprises the main axis and a spikelet from the spikelet meristem.

Do rice flowers bloom? ›

RICE FLOWER has small flowers that cluster together into a terminal flowering head (Inflorescence, corymbs). The flower head size ranges between 50-80 mm. Flower color- white to pink RICE FLOWER grows in most soils but prefers acid and well drained soils with the optimum pH being 5.5-6.5.

How many days does it take for the rice to flower? ›

Flowering technically begins one day after the heading has completed and can continue for about a week. Like all grains, rice is wind pollinated.

Why is rice flower incomplete? ›

For example, the flower of rice is incomplete there being no sepals and petals, but it is perfect with both stamen and pistil. 3. All imperfect flowers are incomplete because either the pistil or stamen is lacking (example: the staminate and pistillate flowers of squash).

What is the flowering response of the rice plant to photoperiod? ›

Rice is sensitive to photoperiod — long-day treatments can prevent or con- siderably delay its flowering. Rice cultivars exhibit a wide range of variation in their degree of sensitivity to photoperiod (87, 254, 319, 357, 531, 563).

Does bud pollination occur in rice? ›

Their pollen grains are viable for only a few minutes. The period is sufficient for bud pollination to take place. Therefore despite being chasmogamous, rice and wheat are bud pollinated.

Is rice self pollination or cross pollination? ›

Since the florets of rice are adichogamous, most of the florets are self‐pollinated at the time of floret opening (Jagoe, 1931).


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